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Instrumentation Guide

The standard format is being used in which the first four figures refer to woodwinds, the second four refer to brass, then percussion are listed separately and finally strings (which are given the minimum number of players needed). Principal auxiliary instruments are linked to their respective instruments with either a 'd' if the same player doubles the auxiliary instrument, or a '+' if an extra player is needed.

For example: 2d1(pic) +1(a.fl) 2+1(E.h) 3d1(b.cl) 2+1(c.bn) - 4 2+2(crt) 3, 1 - timp., 2 perf., hp., pf(cel), hpchd - strings (10 10 6 6 4 min.)

translates to...

  • 2d1(pic) +1(a.fl) 2+1(E.h) 3d1(b.cl) 2+1(c.bn) = 2 flutes, one of which doubles on the piccolo, plus a third player playing alto flute only; 2 oboes plus a third for English horn; 3 clarinets, one doubling bass clarinet; 2 bassoons plus 1 contrabassoon
  • 4 2+2(crt) 3, 1 = 4 horns; 2 trumpets plus 2 coronets; 3 trombones; 1 tuba
  • timp., 2 perf., hp., pf(cel), hpchd = 1 timpanist; 2 percussion; 1 harp, 1 piano doubling on celesta; 1 harpsichord
  • strings (10 10 6 6 4 min.) = strings (minimum of 10 violins I, 10 violins II, 6 violas, 6 violoncellos and 4 contrabasses)

* Indicates that the work has been recorded (for discography).

Abbreviations:

  • Dur: = Duration
  • pic = piccolo
  • a.fl = alto flute
  • E.h = English horn
  • b.cl = bass clarinet
  • bar sax = baritone saxophone
  • c.bn = contra bassoon
  • timp = timpani
  • perf = percussion
  • hp = harp
  • pf = piano
  • cel = celesta
  • hpchd - harpsichord
  • synth = synthesizer